Page Header Logo
TEI of Athens eJournals

A study of KM critical success factors in Greek academic libraries

Maria Koloniari, Eftichia Vraimaki, Kostas Fassoulis, Ina Zenelaj, Xrusovalantis Spuridon Kourniotis


In the library environment, knowledge management (KM) has been recognized as improving overall performance, facilitating the creation of innovative services and assisting libraries in better serving the needs of their parent organizations. The purpose of the present study is to explore the level of presence of and possible associations among knowledge management critical success factors in Greek academic libraries,even if they do not consciously practice KM. The factors examined are: knowledge management strategy, organizational culture, organizational structure, human resources management, and information and communication technology infrastructure. The results indicate that, while academic libraries make wide use of information and communication technology tools and their organizational structure facilitates open communication, team-working is not widely practiced. However, libraries seem to have taken some steps toward building a knowledge-conducive culture and formulating a knowledge-centered strategy. Finally, the strong associations that were identified between knowledge management strategy and all the other factors suggest that library managers should focus on building a clear knowledge management strategy, which will determine the appropriate framework for the implementation of knowledge-conducive practices and the adoption of information and communication technology tools, while buttressed by a knowledge-friendly culture.


knowledge management strategy, organizational culture, organizational structure, human resources management, information and communication technology, academic libraries


Ajiferuke, I. (2003). Role of information professionals in knowledge management programs: empirical evidence from Canada. Informing Science, 6, 247–257.

Alavi, M., Kayworth, T. R. and Leidner, D. E. (2005). An empirical examination of the influence of organizational culture on knowledge management practices. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(3), 191–224. doi:10.2753/MIS0742-1222220307.

Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. E. (2001). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 25 (1), 107–136.

Al-Hawamdeh, S. (2005). Designing an interdisciplinary graduate program in knowledge management. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56 (11), 1200–1206. doi: 10.1002/asi.20223.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y. and Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421–458. doi:10.2307/2393203.

Barclay, R. O. and Murray, P. C. (1997). What is knowledge management. Knowledge Praxis. Available at: [Accessed: 20 December 2015].

Bhatt, G. D. (1998). Managing knowledge through people. Knowledge and Process Management, 5 (3), 165–171. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1441(199809)5:3<165::AID-KPM30>3.0.CO;2-C.

Bhatt, G. D. (2001). Knowledge management in organizations: examining the interaction between technologies, techniques, and people. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1), 68–75. doi:10.1108/13673270110384419.

Campbell, D. T. and Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56 (2), 81–105. doi:10.1037/h0046016.

Caruana, A., Morris, M. H. and Vella, A. J. (1998). The effect of centralization and formalization on entrepreneurship in export firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 36 (1), 16–29.

Chan, I. and Chau, P. Y. K. (2005). Getting knowledge management right: lessons from failure. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(3), 40–54. doi:10.4018/jkm.2005070103.

Chivu, I. and Popescu, D. (2008). Human resources management in the knowledge management. Revista Informatica Economica, 4(48), 54–60.

Choi, B. and Lee, H. (2002). Knowledge management strategy and its link to knowledge creation process. Expert Systems with Applications, 23(3), 173–187.doi: 10.1016/S0957-4174(02)00038-6.

Chong, S. C. and Choi, Y. S. (2005). Critical factors in the successful implementation of knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, 6(1). Available at: [Accessed: 26 November 2015].

Coakes, E., Amar, A. D. and Granados, M. L. (2010). Knowledge management, strategy, and technology: a global snapshot. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 23(3), 282–304. doi:10.1108/17410391011036076.

Courtney, H. S., Navarro, E. and O’Hare, C. A. (2007). The Dynamic Organic Transformational (D.O.T.) team model for high-performance knowledge-worker teams. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 13(1/2), 34–46. doi:10.1108/13527590710736716.

Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowledge management in theory and practice. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Damanpour, F. (1991). Organizational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 555–590.

Davenport, E. and Cronin, B. (2000). Knowledge management: semantic drift or conceptual shift? Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 41(4), 294–306. doi:10.2307/40324047.

De Long, D. W. and Fahey, L. (2000). Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 113–127. doi:10.5465/AME.2000.3979820.

Donate, M. J. and Guadamillas, F. (2011). Organizational factors to support knowledge management and innovation. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(6), 890–914. doi:10.1108/13673271111179271.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. doi:10.2307/3151312.

Gold, A. H., Malhorta, A. and Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214. doi:10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669.

Hair, J. F., Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. and Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate data analysis. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hansen, M. T., Nohria, N. and Tierney, T. J. (1999). What’s your strategy for managing knowledge? Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 106–116.

Hooff, B. van den and Ridder, J. A. de. (2004). Knowledge sharing in context: the influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6), 117-130. doi:10.1108/13673270410567675.

Hsieh, H.-J. (2007). Organizational characteristics, knowledge management strategy, enablers, and process capability: knowledge management performance in US software companies. PhD Thesis, Lynn University. Available at: [Accessed: 7 January 2016].

Inkinen, H. T., Kianto, A. and Vanhala, M. (2015). Knowledge management practices and innovation performance in Finland. Baltic Journal of Management, 10(4), 432–455. doi:10.1108/BJM-10-2014-0178.

Islam, M. S., Siddike, M. A. K., Nowrin, S. and Naznin, S. (2015). Usage and applications of knowledge management for improving library and information services in Bangladesh. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 14(3), 1550026. doi:10.1142/S0219649215500264.

Jantz, R. (2001). Knowledge management in academic libraries: special tools and processes to support information professionals. Reference Services Review, 29(1), 33–39. doi:10.1108/00907320110366778.

Jeng, D. J.-F. and Dunk, N. (2013). Knowledge management enablers and knowledge creation in ERP system success. International Journal of Electronic Business Management, 11(1), 49–59.

Jennex, M. E. and Olfman, L. (2000). Development recommendations for knowledge management/ organizational memory systems. In: 2000. [Accessed: 10 January


Johnson, P. (2014). Fundamentals of collection development and management. 3rd ed. Chicago: Facet Publishing.

Kianto, A. and Andreeva, T. (2014). Knowledge management practices and results in service-oriented versus product-oriented companies. Knowledge and Process Management, 21(4), 221–230. doi:10.1002/kpm.1443.

Kim, S. and Lee, H. (2006). The impact of organizational context and information technology on employee knowledge-sharing capabilities. Public Administration Review, 66(3), 370–385. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00595.x.

Lang, J. C. (2001). Managerial concerns in knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1), 43–59. doi:10.1108/13673270110384392.

Lee, H. and Choi, B. (2003). Knowledge management enablers, processes, and organizational performance: an integrative view and empirical examination. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(1), 179–228. doi:10.1080/07421222.2003.11045756.

Liebowitz, J. (1999). Key ingredients to the success of an organization’s knowledge management strategy. Knowledge and Process Management, 6(1), 37–40. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1441(199903)6:1<37::AID-KPM40>3.0.CO;2-M.

Lundberg, C. C. (1990). Surfacing organisational culture. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 5(4), 19–26.

Malhotra, N. (1999). Marketing research: an applied orientation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Martin, B., Hazeri, A. and Sarrafzadeh, M. (2006). Knowledge management and the LIS professions: investigating the implications for practice and for educational provision. The Australian Library Journal, 55(1), 12–29. doi:10.1080/00049670.2006.10721808.

Meroño-Cerdán, Á. L., López-Nicolás, C. and Sabater-Sánchez, R. (2007). Knowledge management strategy diagnosis from KM instruments use. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(2), 60–72. doi:10.1108/13673270710738915.

Nadkarni, R. A. (1995). A not-so-secret recipe for successful TQM. Quality Progress, 28(11), 91–96.

Nayir, D. Z., Tamm, U. and Durmusoglu, S. S. (2014). How formalization hinders different firm innovativeness types: opening the black box with evidence from a service industry. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 11(5), 1450029.

Nguyen, H. N. and Mohamed, S. (2011). Leadership behaviors, organizational culture and knowledge management practices: an empirical investigation. Journal of Management Development, 30(2), 206–221. doi:10.1108/02621711111105786.

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.

O’Dell, C. and Grayson, Jr, C. J. (1999). Knowledge transfer: discover your value proposition. Strategy & Leadership, 27(2), 10–15.

Peter, J. P. (1981). Construct validity: a review of basic issues and marketing practices. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(2), 133–145. doi:10.2307/3150948.

Riggins, F. J. and Rhee, H.-S. (Sue). (1999). Developing the learning network using extranets. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 4(1), 65–83.

Roberts, J. (2000). From know-how to show-how? Questioning the role of information and communication technologies in knowledge transfer. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 12(4), 429–443. doi:10.1080/713698499.

Sarrafzadeh, M. (2008). The implications of knowledge management for the library and information professions. PhD Thesis, RMIT University. Available at: [Accessed: 23 May 2015].

Semertzaki, E. (2008). Outline of principal competencies of the librarian/information professional [In Greek]. Synergasia online journal, 1, 1–8. Available at: [Accessed: 7 January 2016].

Shanhong, T. (2000). Knowledge management in libraries in the 21st century. In: 66th IFLA Council and General Conference, 2000, Jerusalem, Israel. Available at: [Accessed: 23 May 2015].

Skivington, J. E. and Daft, R. L. (1991). A study of organizational ‘framework’ and ‘process’ modalities for the implementation of business-level strategic decisions. Journal of Management Studies, 28(1), 45–68. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1991.tb00270.x.

Tiwana, A. (2000). The knowledge management toolkit: practical techniques for building a knowledge management system. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wang, H. (2006). From ‘user’ to ‘customer’: TQM in academic libraries? Library Management, 27(9), 606–620. doi:10.1108/01435120610715518. Wen, S. (2005). Implementing knowledge management in academic libraries: a pragmatic approach. Available at: [Accessed: 23 May 2015].

Wilson, T. D. (2002). The nonsense of knowledge management. Information research, 8(1). Available at: [Accessed: 26 December 2015].

Wong, K. Y. (2005). Critical success factors for implementing knowledge management in small and medium enterprises. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 105(3), 261–279. doi:10.1108/02635570510590101.

Yeh, Y., Lai, S. and Ho, C. (2006). Knowledge management enablers: a case study. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 106(6), 793–810. doi:10.1108/02635570610671489.

Zack, M. H. (1999). Developing a knowledge strategy. California Management Review, 41(3), 125–145.

Zack, M. H. (2002). Developing a knowledge strategy: epilogue. Available at: [Accessed: 5 January 2016].

Zheng, W., Yang, B. and McLean, G. N. (2010). Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management. Journal of Business Research, 63(7), 763–771. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.06.005.

Zikmund, W. G. (2003). Business research methods. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.18780/jiim.v2i2.3063


  • There are currently no refbacks.

The application for presenting electronic journals TEI developed within subproject 2 "electronic publishing service" the Act "Development Services Digital Library of TEI" and financed by the operational program "Digital Convergence", NSRF 2007-2013.